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Any wine in the bottle "lives" - inside there are various chemical reactions, transformations, it develops, grows up and then fades. And as a result of all these processes, wine changes, both externally and internally. It brightens if it is red, if white - on the contrary, it becomes more saturated color. Its aromas change from fresh shades to dried, it becomes softer and more delicate. And of course, it does not do without "side effects" - for example, a precipitate appears in the wine. In scientific language this is called - loss of salts of tartaric acid, and on philistine - a tartar. If you find it in an open bottle - it's even good. After all, the wine stone, above all, is a sign of the quality of the wine. This means that the wine did not pass through the rigorous filtration processes before bottling and kept all the best that the mother-nature and winemaker had endowed.

Wine stone usually appears after 5 years of wine life, and by the way, white wine is no exception. But the sediment in the young wine should alert - most likely this is a sign of improper storage

If you've ever seen wine snobs who do not drink wine, and with a wistful look unwind it in a glass, holding a container by a thin leg - that means you understand what we are talking about. However, if not, then we still explain everything. Since the moment you open a bottle of wine, different chemical processes start to operate in the drink. One of the main - oxidation in contact with oxygen. The larger the area of ​​the wine comes into contact with oxygen, the more it will develop, the side odors acquired during production (for example, the same sulfur dioxide smell) will evaporate, it will "breathe" and its aroma will become purer. This process is called aeration.

The main and only preserved preservative in the world, which is contained in natural wines, is sulfur dioxide (SO2). Sulfur in micro doses is used to conserve a large number of products. To be afraid of this preservative is not necessary, because its quantity in a bottle of wine hardly exceeds its dose in packing of vegetables. In its pure form, sulfur dioxide smells distinctly rotten eggs, and it is easy to identify if it is too much in some wine. Yes, there is wine without sulfur, but this is very rare, because with mass production this preservative is necessary for the stabilization of the product.

When talking about the body of wine, mean the density of the drink, which you can feel on the tongue. In other words, we are talking about the density of wine. For example, a strongly aged red wine will be full-bodied, and a simple Chardonnay will have a light body. There is a simple example that will help to understand this. Imagine three kinds of milk of different fat content: 1.5%, 2.8% and 3.5%. In this list, the first will have an easy body, the second - the middle, and the third - full. Why is this necessary? The body category of the wine helps to describe the drink, pick up the correct gastronomic pair to it and express your emotions in relation to a specific glass of wine.

No! Although the bottle without a jam bears the stigma of cheapness, recently countries like New Zealand are moving to screwed-on lids, faced with lots of bad cork. This not only makes it possible to forget about the traffic jams, but it will also be an ideal option when there is no corkscrew nearby. According to experts, the screw cap is as effective in interfering with the penetration of air, as is the cork.

Decantation is associated with aroma and sediment. Especially in old wines, chemical reactions can lead to a precipitate - dead yeast, proteins and other organic compounds. Holding the wine in the decanter allows you to collect these fine particles on the bottom. Also, decantation helps to soften the too fragrant wine.

Remember the strange dry sensation in your mouth after a sip of red wine? Thank for this tannins - natural chemicals in wine and other beverages, for example, black tea. Tannins give wine a taste, make it soft and are an integral part of all red wines. They bind to proteins of saliva - this process leads to dry mouth. Unlike simple tastes like bitter, the interaction of red wine with saliva leaves not just a taste, but a kind of peculiar bouquet and aftertaste.

Wine, especially red, contains a large number of useful ingredients. Mineral substances (calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, manganese) accelerate and regulate metabolic processes in the human body. Organic acids (wine, apple, etc.) have a beneficial effect on digestion, facilitate the work of the stomach. Vitamins C, P, PP, B1, B2, B6, B12, which enter into the wine, strengthen the body, promote the improvement of metabolic processes, are necessary for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems.

The wine contains such biologically active substances as polysaccharides, pectins, enzymes, polyphenols, tannins, which also have a beneficial effect on human health.

The most useful are red wines . They, among other things, contain a powerful antioxidant - resiviratol, which has antitumor, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects.

The healing properties of wine have been noticed for a long time and are used in medicine for many centuries. Even in the days of ancient Rome and ancient Greece, wine was considered a medicine, it was widely used as an antiseptic and tonic. Nowadays, enoterapy - the treatment and prevention of various diseases with the help of wine - is becoming quite popular.

Wine can be used for medical purposes for colds (in hot form - mulled wine ), to increase appetite, as a hypnotic. The antibacterial properties of wine are well known, as well as its role in the prevention of the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Red wines are prescribed for the treatment of anemia.

The benefits of wine are proven by scientists. However, it should not be forgotten that wine has curative and health-improving properties only if it is consumed in a reasonable amount, not exceeding certain standards. There are also a number of diseases in which wine is generally contraindicated.

On wines produced in Europe, the USA and Australia, labels usually contain the inscription "contains sulphites" (contains sulfites). This means that the only preservative used in the production of wine - sulfur dioxide (SO2) was used.

Sulphites are salts of sulfuric acid - sulfur dioxide gas and other compounds based on it. Wines contain natural sulfites that appear during fermentation. In addition to them, winemakers use sulphites at various stages of wine production: in the process of harvesting, during pressing, fermentation and bottling.

Sulphites suppress the growth and reproduction of wild yeast and other undesirable microorganisms, and also serve as an antioxidant. Without them, to produce a quality wine that can withstand transportation and long-term storage is very difficult. Sulfur was used in winemaking by the ancient Romans: they burned a small amount of it in empty wine casks before filling them with wine. In our time, there are always attempts to find another means to ensure the safety of wine, but so far unsuccessfully.

The least amount of sulphites contain organic wines - sulfur dioxide is added only when bottled, sometimes very rarely, not added at all. On the other wines, we can say the following: in red wines, sulfites are less than in white, in expensive wines, less than in cheap wines.

There is an opinion that it is the presence of sulfites in the wine that causes headaches, a hangover. Scientific studies argue that sulfur dioxide is harmless to human health when used in permitted doses. In some people, most often asthmatics, this substance can cause an allergic reaction. Given that in case of an overdose, sulfur dioxide can still cause harm to human health, winemakers tend to reduce its use, use the minimum dosage.

Do not forget that sulfur compounds can enter the human body and with other products. Whether it is dangerous or not depends on whether a person has a special reaction to these substances. If you do not have it, and the consumption of wine occurs in reasonable quantities, you can not be afraid, drink to your health!

The word "vintage" means the year in which grapes were harvested for the production of a particular wine. Vintage wine can only be made from grapes, one year of harvest, although some regions still allow the possibility of adding a small percentage of wine from grapes harvested in adjacent years. This wine is also allowed to be called vintage.

In Chile and South Africa , grapes of one year of harvest in vintage wines should be at least 75%, in Australia , New Zealand , and the member states of the EEC this requirement is 85 %, in United States - 85% or 95%, depending on the region.

In certain wines, the word "vintage" can denote quality, as, for example, in Portugal , where vintage is called port wine , made from grapes harvested in the most successful years. From this tradition, in general, it is not exactly the exact use of this term in relation to any wine, in those cases when they want to especially note its solid age or high quality. Not vintage wine, as a rule, is a mixture of wines produced from grapes of two or more crops, is marked on the wine list as NV.

From the correct temperature of the wine depends a lot, for example, get you the pleasure of a drink or not.

If you periodically taste different wines, you can feel that some drinks like more chilled, and others prefer to drink warm. The fact is that some of the aromatic substances contained in the wines evaporate at different temperatures. This is why the temperature of the wine is so influenced by the taste of the alcoholic beverage. The common opinion that the wine should be kept in the refrigerator before serving is just a myth. Wines, cooled to 3-5 degrees, do not open their bouquet. Cold red wines can be unnecessarily tannic. Conversely, too warm wines become incomprehensible and sluggish.

Room temperature of 20-25 degrees is too high for both red and white wines. However, if you hold, red wine 10-15 minutes in the refrigerator, its taste will change for the better.

If you are not sure at what temperature to serve wine, it is better to cool it. Excessively chilled wines are quickly warmed up in glasses, but excessively warm wine can not be cooled quickly.

The exception is sparkling wines - they are always served chilled.

From the above, the conclusion is this: heat increases the strength of the drink, and the cold intensifies the acidity of the wine. And only the right temperature allows the wine to open up.

6-8 degrees, the lowest flow temperature. It is suitable for wines that have an increased mineral content and acidity. Quite cold desserts are also served by simple dessert wines, for example, from Muscat. In small quantities, they are good on their own, after dinner, or with fruit cakes. Sweet and semi-sweet sparkling wines and semisweet champagne are served to the same dishes, and also cooled to 6 degrees. Simple dessert dry and sparkling wines are distinguished by taste, in which sweetness dominates acidity. If such wine is served at a temperature of 18 degrees, then you are unlikely to drink half a glass. In order for the taste to be harmonious, fresh, light, these wines must necessarily be of low temperature. If you have a small company and you drink wine slowly, leave the bottle in an ice bucket so that the wine does not get warm, and pour into the glass no more than one-third.

8-10 degrees. At this temperature, high-quality white dry sparkling wines and simple brut champagne are served.

All pink wines need considerable cooling, otherwise they will seem sluggish, watery. Pink wines are not rich in tannins, often acidity is quite low, but they have bright shades of fresh berries and fruits. In summer, they replace us with red wines, complementing light cold snacks from fish, poultry, as well as hot Mediterranean cuisine, pizza.

Up to 10-12 degrees cool champagne (one year of harvest), as well as Blanc de Blanc (from Chardonnay) and Blanc de Noir (from Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier). Black caviar, Bree cheeses are excellent for the first two. Pink champagne and simple, and elite it is better to cool to 12 degrees. Quality white wines from Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, Semion, Pinot Gris, Gevurztraminer, simple white wines, cooled to 10-12 degrees, will become a wonderful aperitif, however, like champagne

14-16 degrees. At this temperature, the best wines from the Chardonnay variety are served. Young simple red wines with unbalanced acidity, spirituous, with excessive tannins, will benefit from low feed temperature. Cool can be served and quality red wines from Merlot varieties, and red wines from Pinot Noir.

16-18 degrees - the average temperature of the living room of a medieval castle at any time of the year. It was then that the idiom "room temperature" originated, which we now often perceive quite incorrectly. If the manufacturer recommends giving wine at room temperature, he does not mean 20-25, namely 16-18 degrees.

There is no unambiguous answer to this question. Yes and no. Some wines are rather simple and experiments with different glasses do not change anything in their perception. Others have such components of flavor and taste that can either be highlighted or minimized, depending on the type of dishes in which wine is served.

For example, wine with a high level of alcohol, as a rule, is better manifested in a wide and spacious glass or glass. Alcohol, evaporating from the surface of the wine, has time to dissipate a little earlier than it will be perceived by the nose, which plays a decisive role in determining not only the aroma, but also the taste of wine.

The shape and size of the glass are of great importance in revealing the bouquet. If you pour ordinary wine in a liter glass for Burgundy wines, its aromas will be lost in large volume and will not reach the receptors. At the same time, you can not catch all the nuances of a bouquet of quality Burgundy wine in a narrow glass, you will only feel the concentrated smell - the wine will not open.


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